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A man with a question. ARE COVERT AEROSOL PROGRAMs OPERATIONAL INTERNATIONALLY? If so, who runs them and why? Contact: phil.warinsky@gmail.com - Lets work together in an effort to achieve EXPOSURE on the 'chemtrail' issue. Begin to find out what CLOUD SEEDING is, what HAARP is, what 'CHEMTRAILS' are, know the difference between different forms of weather modification. Consider all evidence for and against. Consider 'who benefits' and be aware of disinformation. Don't stop asking questions in fear. Join a growing group of people who are seeking to obtain the answer/s to the question: WHAT IS BEING SPRAYED IN OUR SKIES?

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Clouds?
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Tuesday, September 23, 2008

NASA - CLOUDS CAUSED BY AIRCRAFT EXHAUST MAY WARM THE U.S. CLIMATE

April 27, 2004

Gretchen Cook-Anderson
Headquarters, Washington
(Phone: 202/358-0836)

Chris Rink/Julia Cole
Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.
(Phone: 757/864-6786/4052)

RELEASE: 04-140

CLOUDS CAUSED BY AIRCRAFT EXHAUST MAY WARM THE U.S. CLIMATE

NASA scientists have found that cirrus clouds, formed by contrails
from aircraft engine exhaust, are capable of increasing average
surface temperatures enough to account for a warming trend in the
United States that occurred between 1975 and 1994.

"This result shows the increased cirrus coverage, attributable to air
traffic, could account for nearly all of the warming observed over
the United States for nearly 20 years starting in 1975, but it is
important to acknowledge contrails would add to and not replace any
greenhouse gas effect," said Patrick Minnis, senior research
scientist at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. The study
was published April 15 in the Journal of Climate. "During the same
period, warming occurred in many other areas where cirrus coverage
decreased or remained steady," he added.

"This study demonstrates that human activity has a visible and
significant impact on cloud cover and, therefore, on climate. It
indicates that contrails should be included in climate change
scenarios," Minnis said.

Minnis determined the observed one percent per decade increase in
cirrus cloud cover over the United States is likely due to air
traffic-induced contrails. Using published results from NASA's
Goddard Institute for Space Studies (New York) general circulation
model, Minnis and his colleagues estimated contrails and their
resulting cirrus clouds would increase surface and lower atmospheric
temperatures by 0.36 to 0.54 degrees Fahrenheit per decade. Weather
service data reveal surface and lower atmospheric temperatures across
North America rose by almost 0.5 degree Fahrenheit per decade between
1975 and 1994.

Minnis worked with colleagues Kirk Ayers, Rabi Palinkonda, and Dung
Phan from Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., of Hampton, Va.
They used 25 years of global surface observations of cirrus clouds,
temperature and humidity records from the National Centers for
Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis dataset. They confirmed
the cirrus trends with 13 years of satellite data from NASA's
International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project.

Both air traffic and cirrus coverage increased during the period of
warming despite no changes in the NCEP humidity at jet cruise
altitudes over the United States. By contrast, humidity at flight
altitudes decreased over other land areas, such as Asia, and was
accompanied by less cirrus coverage, except over Western Europe,
where air traffic is very heavy.

Cirrus coverage also rose in the North Pacific and North Atlantic
flight corridors. The trends in cirrus cover and warming over the
United States were greatest during winter and spring, the same
seasons when contrails are most frequent. These results, along with
findings from earlier studies, led to the conclusion that contrails
caused the increase in cirrus clouds.

"This study indicates that contrails already have substantial regional
effects where air traffic is heavy, such as over the United States.
As air travel continues growing in other areas, the impact could
become globally significant," Minnis said.

Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air and determines how
long contrails remain in the atmosphere. Contrails that persist for
an extended period of time are most likely to impact the climate.

Contrails form high in the atmosphere when the mixture of water vapor
in the aircraft exhaust and the air condenses and freezes. Persisting
contrails can spread into extensive cirrus clouds that tend to warm
the Earth, because they reflect less sunlight than the amount of heat
they trap. The balance between Earth's incoming sunlight and outgoing
heat drives climate change.

NASA's Earth Science Enterprise funded this research. NASA's Earth
Science Enterprise is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an
integrated system and applying Earth System Science to improve
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards using the unique
vantage point of space.

For information about this research on the Internet, visit:

http://www.larc.nasa.gov/

For information about NASA on the Internet, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html

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Chemtrails in The MEDIA (you probably saw this on the news already).